Department of  Neurosurgery
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Jeffrey M. Gidday, PhD

Jeffrey M. Gidday, PhDAssociate Professor of Neurological Surgery

Washington University School of Medicine
Department of Neurological Surgery
660 S. Euclid Avenue
Campus Box 8057
St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Phone: 314-286-2795
Fax: 314-286-2900

Research Interests
Ischemic neuroprotection of brain and retina by "conditioning" with sublethal hypoxia and other stress stimuli. Inflammatory mechanisms of vascular dysfunction and injury in brain and retina in response to acute and chronic disease. For more information, visit the Gidday Lab.

BS, Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979
PhD, Physiology, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1986
Fellow, Stroke Council, American Heart Association, 2004
Fellow, Cardiovascular Section, American Physiological Society, 2006

Academic Positions
Research Associate, Department of Neurosurgery
University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (1988)

Research Assistant Professor, Department of Neurosurgery
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (1990)

Assistant Professor, Departments of Neurosurgery, Cell Biology & Physiology, and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine (1993)

Associate Professor, Departments of Neurosurgery, Cell Biology & Physiology, and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Washington University (2000)


Journal Articles 

  1. Ely, S.W., C.W. Sun, R.M. Knabb, J.M. Gidday, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Adenosine and metabolic regulation of coronary blood flow in dogs with renal hypertension. Hypertension 5: 943-950, 1983.
  2. Knabb, R.M., J.M. Gidday, S.W. Ely, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Effects of dipyridamole on myocardial adenosine and active hyperemia. Am. J. Physiol. 247: H804-H810, 1984.
  3. Berne, R.M., R.R. Curnish, J.M. Gidday, R. Rubio. Measurement of femtomolar concentrations of adenosine. J. Liq. Chromatog. 9: 113-119, 1986.
  4. Berne, R.M., J.M. Gidday, H.E. Hill, R.R. Curnish, R. Rubio. The interstitial adenosine concentration during altered cardiac metabolism in the dog. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 230: 3-11, 1987.
  5. Gidday, J.M., H.E. Hill, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Estimates of left ventricular interstitial fluid adenosine during catecholamine stimulation. Am. J. Physiol. 254: H207-H216, 1988.
  6. Park, T.S., J.M. Gidday. Effect of dipyridamole on cerebral extracellular adenosine concentration in vivo. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 10: 424-427, 1990.
  7. Gidday, J.M., J.W. Esther, S.W. Ely, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Time-dependent effects of theophylline on myocardial reactive hyperaemias in the anaesthetized dog. Br. J. Pharmacol. 100: 95-101, 1990.
  8. Tietjan, C.S., C.G. Tribble, J.M. Gidday, C.L. Phillips, L. Belardinelli, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Interstitial adenosine in guinea pig hearts: An index obtained by epicardial discs. Am. J. Physiol. 259: H1417-1476, 1990.
  9. Park, T.S., E. Gonzales, J.M. Gidday. Local cerebral blood flow response to locally infused 2-chloro-adenosine during hypotension in piglets. Dev. Brain Res. 61: 73-77, 1991.
  10. Gidday, J.M., D.M. Kaiser, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Interstitial adenosine: The measurement, the interpretation. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 24: 347-350, 1992.
  11. Gidday, J.M., D.M. Kaiser, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Heterogeneity of interstitial adenosine and its dependence on volume of fluid used for sampling. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 24: 351-364, 1992.
  12. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park. Effects of 2-chloroadenosine on cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia in newborn pig. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 12: 656-663, 1992.
  13. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park. Microcirculatory responses to adenosine in the newborn pig retina. Pediatr. Res. 33: 620-627, 1993.
  14. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park. Adenosine-mediated autoregulation of retinal arteriolar tone in the piglet. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34: 2713-2719, 1993.
  15. Ruth, V.J., T.S. Park, E.R. Gonzales, J.M. Gidday. Adenosine and cerebrovascular hyperemia during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in newborn piglets. Am. J. Physiol. 265: H1762-H1768, 1993.
  16. Gidday, J.M., J.C. Fitzgibbons, A.R. Shah, T.S. Park. Neuroprotection from ischemic brain injury by hypoxic preconditioning in the neonatal rat. Neurosci. Lett. 168: 221-224, 1994.
  17. Kim, Y.B., J.M. Gidday, E.R. Gonzales, A.R. Shah, T.S. Park. Effect of hypoglycemia on post-ischemic cortical blood flow, hypercapnic reactivity, and interstitial adenosine concentration. J. Neurosurg. 81: 877-884, 1994.
  18. Park, T.S., E.R. Gonzales, A.R. Shah, J.M. Gidday. Hypoglycemia selectively abolishes hypoxic reactivity of pial arterioles in piglets: Role of adenosine. Am. J. Physiol. 268: H871-H878, 1995.
  19. Gidday, J.M., Y. Zhu. Nitric oxide does not mediate autoregulation of retinal blood flow in newborn pig. Am. J. Physiol. 269: H1065-1072, 1995.
  20. Gidday, J.M., J.C. Fitzgibbons, A.R. Shah, M.J. Kraujalis, T.S. Park. Reduction in cerebral ischemic injury in the newborn rat by potentiation of endogenous adenosine. Pediatr. Res. 38: 306-311, 1995.
  21. Gidday, J.M., Y. Zhu. Nitric oxide does not mediate autoregulation of retinal blood flow in newborn pig. Am. J. Physiol. 269: H1065-1072, 1995.
  22. Gidday, J.M., J.C. Fitzgibbons, A.R. Shah, M.J. Kraujalis, T.S. Park. Reduction in cerebral ischemic injury in the newborn rat by potentiation of endogenous adenosine. Pediatr. Res. 38: 306-311, 1995.
  23. Zhu, Y., J.M. Gidday. Hypoglycemic hyperemia in retina of newborn pig: Involvement of adenosine. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37: 86-92, 1996.
  24. Gidday, J.M., Y.B. Kim, A.R. Shah, E.R. Gonzales, T.S. Park. Adenosine transport inhibition ameliorates postischemic hypoperfusion in pigs. Brain Res. 734: 261-268, 1996.
  25. Gidday, J.M., R.G. Maceren, A.R. Shah, J.A. Meier, Y. Zhu. KATP channels mediate adenosine-induced hyperemia in retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37: 2624-2633, 1996.
  26. Cheng, Y., J.M. Gidday, Q. Yan, A.R. Shah, D.M. Holtzman. Marked age-dependent neuroprotection by brain-derived neurotrophic factor against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Ann. Neurol. 41: 521-529, 1997.
  27. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park, E.R. Gonzales, J.W. Beetsch. CD18-dependent leukocyte adherence and vascular injury in the pig cerebral circulation following ischemia. Am. J. Physiol. 272: H2622-2629, 1997.
  28. Halle, J.N., C.E. Casper, J.M. Gidday, B.J. Koos. Enhancing adenosine A1 receptor binding reduces hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn rats. Brain Res. 759: 309-312, 1997.
  29. Roth, S., B. Li, P.S. Rosenbaum, H. Gupta, I.M. Goldstein, K.M. Maxwell, J.M. Gidday. Preconditioning completely protects against retinal ischemic injury in rats. Invest.Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39: 777-785, 1998.
  30. Beetsch, J.W., T.S. Park, A.R. Shah, J.M. Gidday. Xanthine oxidase-derived superoxide causes reoxygenation injury of cerebral endothelial cells. Brain Res. 786: 89-95, 1998.
  31. Grabb, M.C., V.M. Sciotti, J.M. Gidday, S.A. Cohen, D.G.L. Van Wylen. Neurochemical and morphological responses to acutely and chronically implanted brain microdialysis probes. J. Neurosci. Methods 82: 25-34, 1998.
  32. Cheng, Y., A. DiCosta, M. Deshmukh, J.A. Demaro, J.M. Gidday, A.R. Shah, M.F. Jacquin, E.M. Johnson, Jr., D.M. Holtzman. Prominent apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: Caspase inhibitor affords neuroprotection with delayed administration. J. Clin. Invest. 101: 1992-1999, 1998.
  33. Zhu, Y., T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Mechanisms of hyperoxia-induced reductions in retinal blood flow in newborn pig. Exp. Eye Res. 67: 357-369. 1998.
  34. Gidday, J.M., Y. Zhu. Endothelium-dependent changes in retinal blood flow following ischemia. Curr. Eye Res. 17: 798-807, 1998
  35. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park, A.R. Shah, E.R. Gonzales. Modulation of basal and postischemic leukocyte-endothelial adherence by nitric oxide. Stroke 29: 1423-1430, 1998.
  36. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park, J.W. Beetsch. Endogenous glutathione protects cerebral endothelial cells from traumatic injury. J. Neurotrauma 16: 27-36, 1999.
  37. Gidday, J.M., R.G. Maceren, A.R. Shah, Q. Wang, D.A. Pelligrino, T.S. Park. Nitric oxide mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic preconditioning. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 19: 331-340, 1999.
  38. Park, T.S., E.R. Gonzales, J.M. Gidday. Platelet-activating factor mediates ischemia-induced leukocyte-endothelial adherence in newborn pig brain. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 19: 417-424, 1999.
  39. Han, B.H., A. D'Costa, M. Parsadanian, S. Patel, A.R. Shah, J.M. Gidday, Q. Yan, A Srinivasan, M. Deshmukh, D.M. Holtzman. BDNF blocks caspase-3 activation in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Neurobiol. Dis. 7: 38-53, 2000.
  40. Majid, A., Y.Y. He, J.M. Gidday, S.S. Kaplan, E.R. Gonzales, T.S. Park, J.D. Fenstermacher, L. Wei, D.W. Choi, C.Y. Hsu. Intrinsic, hemodynamic-independent differences in vulnerability to permanent focal cerebral ischemia in common mutant mouse strains. Stroke 31: 2707-2714, 2000.
  41. Almli, C.R, T.J. Levy, A.R. Shah, J.M. Gidday, D.M. Holtzman. BDNF protects against spatial memory deficits in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Exp. Neurol. 166: 99-114, 2000.
  42. Kaplan, S.S., T.S. Park, E.R. Gonzales, J.M. Gidday. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces leukocyte adherence and vascular injury in the pig cerebral circulation following asphyxia. Stroke 31: 2218-2223, 2000.
  43. Bergeron, M., J.M. Gidday, A.Y. Yu, G.L. Semenza, D.M. Ferriero, F.R. Sharp. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in hypoxia-induced tolerance in newborn rat brain. Ann. Neurol. 48: 285-296, 2000.
  44. Miller, B.A., R.S. Perez, A.R. Shah, E.R. Gonzales, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Cerebral protection by hypoxic preconditioning in a murine model of focal ischemia-reperfusion. NeuroReport 12:1663-1669, 2001.
  45. Rieger, J.M., A.R. Shah, J.M. Gidday. Ischemia-reperfusion injury of retinal endothelium by cyclooxygenase- and xanthine oxidase-derived superoxide. Exp. Eye Res. 74:493-501, 2002.
  46. Zhu, Y., K.K. Ohlemiller, B.K. McMahan, J.M. Gidday. Mouse models of retinal ischemic tolerance. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43:1903-1911, 2002.
  47. Altay, T., E.R. Gonzales, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Cerebrovascular inflammation following brief episodic hypoxia: Modulation by neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J. Appl. Physiol. 96: 1223-1230, 2004.
  48. Leahy, K.M., R.L. Ornberg, Y. Wang, J.M. Gidday, Y. Zhu, J.R. Connor, M.B. Wax. Quantitative ex vivo detection of rodent retinal ganglion cells by immunolabelling Brn-3b. Exp. Eye Res. 79: 131-140, 2004.
  49. Zhang, Y., X. Zhang, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Cerebral endothelial cell apoptosis following ischemia-reperfusion: Role of PARP activation and AIF translocation. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 25: 866-877, 2005.
  50. Gidday, J.M., Y. Gasche, J.C. Copin, A.R. Shah, R.S. Perez, S.D. Shapiro, P.H. Chan, T.S. Park. Leukocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates blood-brain barrier breakdown and is proinflammatory following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Am. J. Physiol. 289: H558-568, 2005.
  51. Vadivelu, S., M.M. Platik, L. Choi, M.L. Lacy, A.R. Shah, T.F. Holekamp, D. Becker, Z. Farhangrazi, D.I. Gottlieb, J.M. Gidday, J. W. McDonald. Transplanted embryonic stem cells contribute to multilineage CNS organ repair. J. Neurosurg.103: 124-135, 2005.
  52. Copin, J.-C., M.-C. Goodyear, J.M. Gidday, A.R. Shah, D.M. Morel, Y. Gasche. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in apoptosis after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Eur. J. Neurosci. 22: 1597-1608, 2005.
  53. Zhu, Y., K.K. Ohlemiller, B.K. McMahan, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity is required to trigger ischemic tolerance in mouse retina. Exp. Eye Res. 82: 153-163, 2006.
  54. Zhang, Y., T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Hypoxic preconditioning protects human brain endothelium from ischemic apoptosis by Akt-dependent survivin activation. Am. J. Physiol. 292: H2573-H2581, 2007.
  55. Zhu, Y., Y. Zhang, B.A. Ojwang, M.A. Brantley Jr., J.M. Gidday. Long-term tolerance to retinal ischemia by repetitive hypoxic preconditioning: Role of HIF-1α and heme oxygenase-1. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48: 1735-1743, 2007.
  56. Altay, T., B. McLaughlin, J.Y. Wu, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Slit modulates cerebrovascular inflammation and mediates neuroprotection against global cerebral ischemia. Exp. Neurol. 207: 186-194, 2007.
  57. Zhu, Y., L. Zhang, J.M. Gidday. Deferoxamine preconditioning promotes long-lasting retinal ischemic tolerance. J. Ocular Pharmacol. Therap. 24: 527-535, 2008.
  58. Stowe, A.M., E.R. Gonzales, R.S. Perez, A.R. Shah, T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Neutrophil elastase and neurovascular injury following focal stroke and reperfusion. Neurobiol. Dis. 35: 82-90, 2009.
  59. Wacker, B.K., T.S. Park, J.M. Gidday. Hypoxic preconditioning-induced cerebral ischemic tolerance: Role of microvascular sphingosine kinase 2. Stroke 40: 3342-3348, 2009.
  60. Gidday, J.M., T.S. Park. Erythropoietin and prenatal hypoxia-ischemia. J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 6:203-205, 2010.  
  61. Stowe, A.M., T. Altay, A.B. Freie, J.M Gidday. Repetitive hypoxia extends endogenous neurovascular protection for stroke. Ann. Neurol. 69:975-985, 2011. 
  62. Vellimana, A.K., E. Milner, T.D. Azad, M.D. Harries, M.L. Zhou, J.M. Gidday, B.H. Han, G.J. Zipfel. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates endogenous protection against subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. Stroke 42:776-782, 2011.
  63. Wacker, B.K., A.B. Freie, J.L. Perfater, J.M. Gidday. Junctional protein regulation by sphingosine kinase 2 contributes to blood-brain barrier protection in hypoxic preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32: 1014-1023, 2012.
  64. Stowe, A.M., B.K. Wacker, P.D. Cravens, J.L. Perfater, M.K. Li, R. Hu, A.B. Freie, O. Stuve, J.M. Gidday. CCL2 upregulation triggers hypoxic preconditioning-induced protection from stroke. J. Neuroinflammation 9: 33, 2012.
  65. Zhu, Y., L. Zhang, J.F. Schmidt, J.M. Gidday. Glaucoma-induced injury of retinal ganglion cell soma and axons prevented by hypoxic preconditioning: A model of ‘glaucoma tolerance’. Mol. Medicine 18: 697-706, 2012.
  66. Wacker, B.K., J.L. Perfater, J.M. Gidday. Hypoxic preconditioning induces stroke tolerance in mice via a cascading HIF, sphingosine kinase, and CCL2 signaling pathway. J. Neurochem. 123: 954-962, 2012.
  67. Zhu, Y., Y. Sasaki, L. Zhang, J. Milbrandt, J.M. Gidday. Protection of mouse retinal ganglion cell axons and soma from glaucomatous and ischemic injury by cytoplasmic overexpression of Nmnat1.  Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54: 25-36, 2013.
  68. Zhu, Y., L. Zhang, J.M. Gidday. Role of HIF-1α in preconditioning-induced protection of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma.  Mol. Vis. 19: 2360-2373, 2013.
  69. Gidday, J.M., L. Zhang, Y. Zhu. Enhanced retinal ganglion cell survival in glaucoma by hypoxic postconditioning after disease onset.  Neurotherapeutics (in press).
  70. Milner, E., A.W. Johnson, M.D. Harries, J.M. Gidday, B.H. Han, G.J. Zipfel.  Postconditioning reduces subarachnoid hemorrhage–induced delayed cerebral ischemia via hypoxia-inducible factor-1a.  Ann. Clin. Transl. Neurol. (in press).
  71. Poinsatte, S.B., U.M. Selvaraj, S.B. Ortega, E.J. Plautz, X. Kong, J.M. Gidday, A.M. Stowe.  Quantification of neurovascular protection following repetitive hypoxic preconditioning and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.   J. Vis. Exp. (in press).

Review Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Gidday, J.M., D.M. Kaiser, R. Rubio, R.M. Berne. Interstitial adenosine: The measurement, the interpretation. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 24: 347-350, 1992.
  2. Crosson, C.E., R. DeBennedetto, J.M. Gidday. Functional evidence for retinal adenosine receptors. J. Ocular Pharmacol. 10: 499-507, 1994.
  3. Ghiardi, G.J., J.M. Gidday, S. Roth. The purine adenosine in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Vision Res. 39: 2519-2535, 1999.
  4. Gidday, J.M., H.H. Dietrich, M. Chicoine, R.G. Dacey, Jr. “General Physiology”  IN: Textbook of Neurological Surgery.  Eds:  H.H. Batjer and C.M. Loftus;  Lippincott Williams & Wilkens, 2003, pp. 78-97.
  5. Gidday, J.M. Cerebral preconditioning and ischemic tolerance. Nat. Neurosci. Rev. 7: 437-448, 2006.
  6. Gidday, J.M. Pharmacologic preconditioning: Translating the promise. Transl. Stroke Res. 1: 19-30, 2010.
  7. Gidday, J.M. Achieving Stroke Tolerance: A clinical reality? Medscape Neurology “Perspective”, published online July 11, 2011.
  8. Gidday, J.M. Neuroprotection in glaucoma: Leveraging innate therapeutics. Medscape Ophthalmology “Perspective”, published online October 29, 2012.
  9. Gilchrest, R., J.M. Gidday. “Hypoxic Preconditioning in the CNS.” IN: Innate Tolerance in the CNS. Eds. JM Gidday, M Perez-Pinzon, JH Zhang. Springer, 2012, pp. 183-212.    
  10. Stowe, A.M., J.M. Gidday. “Preconditioning the Neurovascular Unit.” IN: Innate Tolerance in the CNS. Eds. JM Gidday, M Perez-Pinzon, JH Zhang. Springer, 2012, pp. 457-481.
  11. McLaughlin, BA and J.M. Gidday. Poised for success: Implementation of sound conditioning strategies to promote endogenous protective responses to stroke in patients. Transl. Stroke Res. 4:104-113, 2013.