Department of  Neurosurgery
Menu  -
Call Us: (314) 362-3636

T.S. Park, MD

T.S. Park, MDShi H. Huang Professor of Neurological Surgery, Professor of Pediatrics and Anatomy and Neurobiology

Washington University School of Medicine
Department of Neurological Surgery
St. Louis Children's Hospital

One Children's Place
St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Phone: 314-454-2811
Fax: 314-454-2818

Dr. Park's Curriculum Vitae

Treatment of cerebral palsy through selective dorsal rhizotomy:

Center for Nerve Injury & Paralysis

Clinical Interests
General pediatric neurosurgery, selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic cerebral palsy, birth brachial plexus injury.

Research Interests
Efficacy of selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic cerebral palsy; outcome of surgical treatment of birth brachial plexus injury; treatment of syringomyelia associated with Chiari l malformation.

Premedical Course, Yonsei University
Seoul, Korea
1965 – 1967

MD, Yonsei University College of Medicine
Seoul, Korea

Resident, Neurosurgery
Yonsei University College of Medicine
Seoul, Korea
1971 – 1976

Resident, Neurosurgery
University of Virginia Hospital
Charlottesville, Virginia
1976 – 1980

Resident, Pediatric Surgery
Columbus Children's Hospital &
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
1980 – 1981

Research Fellow, Neuropathology
Massachusetts General Hospital &
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts
1979 – 1980

Fellow, Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hospital for Sick Children
University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada
1981 – 1982

Hospital Appointments
St. Louis Children’s Hospital
Barnes-Jewish Hospital 

Medical Licensure

Board Certification
American Board of Pediatric Neurological Surgery (1996)
American Board of Neurological Surgery (1985)
Korean Board of Neurological Surgery (1976)


Pediatric Neurosurgery

  1. Jane JA, Park TS, Pobereskin LH, Winn HR, Butler AB: The supraorbital approach: Technical note. Neurosurgery 1982;11:537.
  2. Johns ME, Kaplan MJ, Jane JA, Park TS, Cantrell RW: The supraorbital rim approach to the anterior skull base. Laryngoscope 1984;94:1137-1139.
  3. Weaver DD, Vandenberg S, Park TS, Jane JA: Selective peripancreatic sarcoma metastasis from primary gliosarcoma. A case report. J Neurosurg 1984;61:599-601.
  4. Colohan ART, Jane JA, Park TS, Persing JA: Bifrontal osteoplastic craniotomy utilizing the anterior wall of the frontal sinus: Technical note. Neurosurgery 1985;16:822-824.
  5. Coffey RJ, Cahill D, Steers W, Park TS, et al: Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spasticity of spinal origin: Results of a long-term multicenter study. J Neurosurg 1993;78:226-232.
  6. Jane JA, Edgerton MT, Futrell JW, Park TS: Immediate correction of sagittal synostosis. J Neurosurg 1978;49:705-710.
  7. Park TS, Hoffman HJ, Humphreys RP, Chuang SH: Spontaneous CSF otorrhea in association with a congenital defect of cochlear aqueduct and Mondini dysplasia. Neurosurgery 1982;11:356-362.
  8. Hurt H, Park TS, Jane JA: External hydrocephalus in the preterm infant. Virg Med J 1982;109:840-842.
  9. Park TS, Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP: Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management. Experience at the Hospital for Sick Children. Toronto J Neurosurg 1983;58:543-552.
  10. Park TS, Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP: Further experience with management of Arnold-Chiari malformation in young infants with myelomeningocele. Neurosurgery 1983;13:147-152.
  11. Campbell AN, Chan HSL, Becker LE, Daneman A, Park TS, Hoffman HJ: Extracranial metastases in childhood primary intracranial tumors: A report of 21 cases and review of the literature. Cancer 1984; 53:974-981.
  12. Jane JA, Park TS, Zide BA, Lambruschi P, Persing JA, Edgerton MT: Alternative techniques in the treatment of unilateral coronal synostosis. J Neurosurg 1984;61:550-556.
  13. Vollmer DG, Jane JA, Park TS, Persing JA: The variants of sagittal synostosis strategies for surgical correction. J Neurosurg 1984;61:557-562.
  14. Stanley P, Senac MO Jr., Segall HD, Park TS: Syringohydromyelia following meningomyelocele surgery-role of metrizamide myelography and computed tomography. Pediat Radiol 1984;14:278-283.
  15. Vollmer DG, Park TS, Cail WS, Jane JA: Hydromyelia in association with Apert's syndrome. Neurosurgery 1985;17:70-74.
  16. Park TS, Cail WS, Maggio WM, Mitchell DE: Progressive spasticity and scoliosis in children with myelomeningocele: A radiological investigation and surgical treatment. J Neurosurg 1985;62:367-375.
  17. Park TS, Haworth CS, Jane JA, Persing JA, Bedford RF: A modified prone position for cranial remodeling procedures in children with craniofacial dysmorphism: A technical note. Neurosurgery 1985;16:212-214.
  18. Park TS, Grady MS, Persing JA, Delashaw JB: One-stage reduction cranioplasty for macrocephaly associated with advanced hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 1985;17:506-509.
  19. Park TS, Cail WS, Delashaw JB, Kattwinkel J: Spinal cord arteriovenous malformation in a neonate: A case report. J Neurosurg 1986;64:322-324.
  20. Grady MS, Bedford RF, Park TS: Superior sagittal sinus pressure in children: In relation to head position, jugular venous compression, PEEP. J Neurosurg 1986;65(2):199-202.
  21. Delashaw JB, Persing JA, Park TS, Jane JA: Surgical approaches for the correction of metopic synostosis. Neurosurgery 1986;19:228-234.
  22. Park TS, Delashaw JB, Broaddus WC, Vollmer DG: Lyophilized cadaver dura mater for primary repair of myelomeningoceles. Pediat Neurosci 1986;12:315-319.
  23. Persing JA, Edgerton MT, Park TS, Jane JA: Barrel stave osteotomy for correction of turribrachycephaly craniosynostosis deformity. Ann Plast Surg 1987;18:488-493.
  24. Vandenberg SR, May E, Rubinstein LJ, Herman MM, Perentes E, Vinoress A, Collins VP, Park TS: Desmoplastic supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors of infancy with divergent differentiation potential ("Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas"). J Neurosurg 1987;66:58-71.
  25. Delashaw JB, Park TS, Cail WS, Vollmer DG: Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies: Four case reports. Child's Nervous System 1987;3:165-169.
  26. Hurst RW, McIIhenny J, Park TS, Thomas WO: Neonatal craniopharyngioma: CT and ultrasonographic features. J. Comput Assist Tomogr 1988;12(5):858-861.
  27. Park TS, Cail WS, Broaddus WC, Walker MG: Lumboperitoneal shunt combined with myelotomy for treatment of syringohydromyelia. J Neurosurg 1989;70:721-727.
  28. Hurst RW, Kerns SR, McIlhenny J, Park TS, Cail WS: Dural venous sinus thrombosis associated with central venous catheterization. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1989;13(3):504-507.
  29. Park TS, Broaddus WC, Harris MH, Persing JA, Jane JA: Vacuum-stiffened bean-bag for cranial remodeling procedures in modified prone position. J Neurosurg 1989;71:623-625.
  30. Phillips LH, Park TS: Electrophysiological monitoring during lipomyelomeningocele resection. Muscle and Nerve 1990;13:127-132.
  31. Persing JA, Jane JA, Park TS, Edgerton MT, Delashaw JB: Floating C-shaped orbital osteotomy for orbital rim advancement in craniosynostosis: Preliminary report. J Neurosurg 1990;72:22-26.
  32. Kaufman BA, Park TS: Congenital spinal cord astrocytomas. Child's Nerv Syst 1992;8:389-393.
  33. Kaufman BA, Jones L, Zutter MM, Park TS: Megakaryocytic leukemia presenting as a temporal bone granulocytic sarcoma. Case Report. J Neurosurg 1993;79:128-131.
  34. Kaufman BA, Terbrock A, Winters N, Ito J, Klosterman A, Park TS: Disbanding a multidisciplinary clinic: The effects on the health care of myelomeningocele patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 1994;21:36-44.
  35. Heim RC, Kaufman BA, Park TS: Complete migration of peritoneal shunt tubing to the scalp: Case Report. Child Nerv Syst 1994;10:399-400.
  36. Kaufman BA, Moran C, Park TS: Computer tomographic scanning within 24 hours of craniotomy for a tumor in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 1995;22:74-80.
  37. Francel PC, Koby M, Park TS, Henegar MM, Kaufman BA, Noetzel MJ, Mackinnon SE, Lee BCP: Fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging for radiological assessment of neonatal bachial plexus injury. J Neurosurg, 1995;83:461-466.
  38. Francel PC, Park TS, Marsh JL, Kaufman BA: Frontal plagiocephaly secondary to synostosis of the frontosphenoidal suture. J Neurosurg, 1995;83:733-736.
  39. Lee BCP, Park TS, Kaufman BA: MR angiography in pediatric neurological disorders. Pediatr Radiol, 1995;25:409-419.
  40. Kaufman BA, Francel PC, Roberts RL, Dehner LP, Argeniand E, Park TS: Chondroid chordoma of the lateral skull base: Case report. Pediatr Neurosurg 1995;23:59-165.
  41. Kaufman BA, Moran CJ, Park TS: Spinal magnetic resonance imaging immediately post-craniotomy for detection of metastatic disease. Pediatr Neurosurg 1995;23:171-181.
  42. Park TS, Bourgeois BFD, Silbergeld DL, Dodson EW: Subtemporal transparahippocampal amygdalo-hippocampectomy for treatment of mesial temporal epilepsy. Technical Note. J Neurosurg, 1996;85:1172-1176.
  43. Sherburn EW, Day RAA, Kaufman BA, Park TS: Subdental synchondrosis fracture in children: The value of 3-dimensional computerized tomography. Case report. Pediatr Neurosurg;1996;25:256-259.
  44. Yundt KD, Park TS, Tantuwaya VS, Kaufman BA: Posterior fossa decompression without duraplasty in infants and young children for treatment of Chiari malformation and achondroplasia. Pediatr Neurosurg 1996;25:221-226.
  45. Ojemann JG, Park TS, Komanestsky R, Day RAA, Kaufman BA: Lack of specificity in eletrophysiological identification of sacral roots during selective dorsal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg 1997;86:28-33.
  46. Quayle KS, Kaufman BA, Park TS, Jaffe DM, Lee BCP, McAlister WH: Diagnostic testing for acute head injury in children: When are head CT and skull radiographs indicated. Pediatrics 1997;99(5); URL:
  47. Day RAA, Park TS, Ojemann JG, Kaufman BA: Foramen magnum decompression for cervicomedullary encroachment in craniometaphyseal dysplasia. Neurosurgery 1997;41:960-96.
  48. Sherburn EW, Kaplan SS, Kaufman BA, Noetzel MJ, Park TS: Outcome of surgically treated birth-related brachial plexus injuries in twenty cases. Pediatr Neurosurg 1997;27:19-27.
  49. Oser AB, Moran CJ, Kaufman BA, Park TS: MR imaging frindings within 24 hours of craniotomy for intracranial tumor in children. Radiology 1997;205:807-812.
  50. Herman TE, Shackleford GD, Park TS, Siegel MJ: Special imaging casebook. Terminal myelocystocele. J Perinatol 1997;17:416-418.
  51. Lee BC, Hatfield G, Park TS, Kaufman BA: MR imaging surface display of the cerebral cortex in children. Peditr Radiol 1997;27:199-206.
  52. Yundt KD, Park TS, Kaufman BA: Normal diameter of filum terminale in children: In vivo measurement. Pediatr Neurosurg 1997;27:257-259.
  53. Vogelbaum MA, Kaufman BA, Winthrop AL, Park TS: Management of uncomplicated skull fractures in children: Is hospital admission necessary? Pediatr Neurosurg 1998,29:96-101.
  54. Lee BCP, Schmidt RE, Hatfield GA, Bourgeois BFD, Park TS: MRI of cortical dysplasia. Neuroradiol 1998;40: 675-683.
  55. Panchal J, Marsh JL, Park TS, Kaufman BA: Sagittal craniosynostosis outcome assessment for two methods and timings of intervention. Plastic Reconst Surgery 1999;103:1574-1584.
  56. Panchal J, Marsh JL, Park TS, Kaufman BA: Photographic assessment of head shape following sagittal synostosis surgery. Plastic Reconst Surgery 1999;103:1585-1591.
  57. Kaufman BA, Park TS: Ventricular anatomy and shunt catheters. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999;31:1-6.
  58. Cai D, Mafra M, Schmidt RE, Scheithauer BW, Park TS, Perry A: Medulloblastomas with extensive post-therapy neuronal maturation. J Neurosrug 2000;93:330-334.
  59. Robinson S, Park TS, Bourgeois BFD, Blackburn LB, Arnold S, Dodson WE: Transparahippocampal selective amygadalohippocampectomy in children and adolescents: Efficacy and cognitive morbidity. J Neurosurg 2000;93:402-409.
  60. Ojemann JG, Park TS, Kaufman BA: Prepontine mass lesions in association with Chiari II malformation. Ped Neurosurg 2000;33:113-117.
  61. Leonard J, Cai DX, Rivet D, Kaufman BA, Park TS Levy BK, Perry A: Large cell/anaplastic transformation of medulloblastomas and medullomyoblastomas: Clinicopathologic and genetic evidence for tumor progression. J Neurosurg 2001;95;82-88.
  62. Noetzel MJ, Park TS, Robinson S, Kaufman BA: A prospective study of recovery following birth related brachial plexus injury. J Child Neurol 2001;16;488-49.
  63. Rivet DJ, Bruch LA, Lee BCP, Park TS:A seven-week-old infant with fever, CSF pleocytosis and intraspinal mass. Pediatr Neurosurg 2001;35;53-55.
  64. Alden TD, Ojemann JG, Park TS: Surgical treatment of Chiari l malformation: indication and approaches. Neurosurg Focus 2001;11(1):Article 2.
  65. Alden TD, Ojemann JG, Lytle RA, Park TS: Vein of Galen malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 2001;35:51.
  66. Kaplan SS, Park TS, Mckinstry R, Fuller C, Ojemann JG: Gliomatosis Cerebri. Pediatr Neurosurg 2002;36:111-112.
  67. Kaplan SS. Ojemann JG. Grange DK. Fuller C. Park TS. Intracranial infantile myofibromatosis with intraparenchymal involvement. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002;36(4):214-7.
  68. Kaplan SS, Ojemann JG, Park TS: Pediatric sylvian fissure meningioma. Pediatr Neurosurg 2002;36:275-276.
  69. Alden TD, Lytle RA, Park TS, Noetzel MJ, Ojemann JG: Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal: a case report and review of the literature. Child’s Nerv Syst 2002;18:522-525.
  70. Robinson S, Kaufman BA, Park TS: Outcome analysis of initial neonatal shunts: Does the valve make a difference? Pediatr Neurosurg 2002;37(6):287-94.
  71. O’Brien D, Taylor M, Park TS, Ojemann JG: A critical analysis of normal radionucleotide shuntograms in patients subsequently requiring surgery. Childs Nerv Syst 2003;19:337-341.
  72. Rivet DJ, O’Brien DF, Park TS, Ojemann JG: Distance of the motor cortex from the coronal suture as a function of age. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004;40:215-219.
  73. Ashley WW Jr, Narayan P, Park TS, Tu PH, Perry A, Leonard JR: Incidental pediatric intraparenchymal xanthogranuloma: case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(3 Suppl):307-10.
  74. Mansur DB, Perry A, Rajaram V, Michalski JM, Park TS, Leonard JR, Luchtman-Jones L, Rich KM, Grigsby PW, Lockett MA, Wahab SH, Simpson JR: Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61(2):387-91.
  75. Ashley WW Jr, Ojemann JG, Park TS, Wippold FJ 2nd.: Primary hypothyroidism in a 12-year-old girl with a suprasellar pituitary mass: rapid regression after thyroid replacement therapy: case report. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(4 Suppl):413-6.
  76. Ashley WW, McKinstry R, Leonard JR, Smyth MD, Lee B, Park TS: Use of rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of hydrocephalus in children. J Neuros: (6 Suppl Pediatrics) 2005;103:124-130.
  77. Mangano FT, Menendez JA, Habrock, T, Narayan P, Leonard JR, Park TS, Smyth MD: Early programmable valve malfunctions in pediatric hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg (6 Suppl Pediatrics) 2005;103:501-507.
  78. Mangano FT, Menendez JA, Leonard JR, Park TS, Smyth MD: Pediatric neurosurgical injuries associated with all-terrain vehicle accidents: a 10-year experience at Saint Louis Children's Hospital. J Neurosurg (1 Suppl Pediatrics) 2006;105:2-5.
  79. Ashley WW, Park TS: Collagen Nerve Guides for Surgical Repair of Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury: Technical Note and Case Series. J Neurosurg (6 Suppl Pediatr) 2006;105:452-456.
  80. Johnston MJ Jr, Park TS, Ojemann JG, Trevathan E, Arnold ST, Zempel JM, Thio LL, Wong M, Gurnett CA, Ess K, Mangano FT, Smyth MD. Complications of invasive subdural grid and strip electrode monitoring at Saint Louis Children’s Hospital, 1994-2005. J Neurosurg: Pediatr, 2006; 343-347.
  81. Ashley WW, Baty JD, Hollander T, Park TS. Long-term motor outcome analysis using a motor score composite following surgical brachial plexus repair. J Neurosurg (4 Suppl Pediatrics) 2007;106:276-281.
  82. O’Brien DF, Farrell M, Delanty N, Traunecker H, Richard Perrin, Smyth M, Park TS: The Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia Group Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumours. Br J Neurosurg. 2007 Dec;21(6):539-49.
  83. Smyth MD, Limbrick D, Ojemann JG, Zempel J, Robinson S, O'Brien DF, Saneto RP, Goyal M, Appleton RE, Park TS. Outcome following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy in pre-adolescent children with hippocampal pathology: emphasis on mesial temporal sclerosis. J Neurosurg:Pediatr 2007;106:205-210.
  84. Johnston J, Vyas N, Kane AA, Molter D, Smyth MD: Giant intracranial teratoma with epignathus in a neonate: Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg:Pediatr 2007;106:232-236.
  85. Engsberg JR, Ross SA, Collins AR, Park TS: Predicting functional changes from preintervention measures in selective dorsal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg (4 Supple Pediatrics) 2007;106:282-287.
  86. Altay T, McLaughlin B, Wu JY, Park TS, Gidday JM. Slit modulates cerebrovascular inflammation and mediates neuroprotection against global cerebral ischemia. Experimen Neurol 207 (2007) 186–194.
  87. Zhang Y, Park TS, Gidday JM. Human brain endothelial cell protection from apoptosis by the PI3K/Akt pathway following hypoxic preconditioning. Am J Physiol. 2007;292:H2573-2581.
  88. Lin LL, El Naqa I, Leonard JR, Park TS, Hollander AS, Michalski JM, Mansur DB: Long-term outcome in children treated for craniopharyngioma with and without radiotherapy. J Neurosurg Pediatrics. 2008;1:126–130.
  89. Smyth MD, Narayan P, Tubbs SR, Leonard JR, Park TS, Loukas M, Grabb PA: Cumulative diagnostic radiation exposure in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts: a review. Childs Nerv Syst 2008;24:493-497.
  90. Frei-Jones M, McKinstry RC, Perry A, Leonard JR, Park TS, Rubin JB: Use of thalidomide to diminsh growth velocity in a life-threatening congenital intracranial hemangioma. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2008;2:125-129.
  91. Limbrick DD, Narayan P, Powers AK, Ojemann JG, Bertrand M, Smyth DD: Hemispherotomy: efficacy and analysis of seizure recurrence. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2009;4:323-332.
  92. Stowe AM, Gonzales ER, Perez RS, Sha AR, Rangel YM, Park TS, Gidday JM: Neutrophil elastase and neurovascular injury following focal stroke and reperfusion. Neurobiol Dis 2009;35:82-90.
  93. Wacker BK, Park TS, Gidday JM: Hypoxic Preconditioning-Induced Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance: Role of Microvascular Sphingosine Kinase 2. Stroke 2009;40:3342-8.