Department of  Neurosurgery
Menu  -
Call Us: (314) 362-3636

Keith M. Rich, MD

Keith M. Rich, MDProfessor of Neurological Surgery, Neurobiology, and Radiology
Medical Director, St. Louis Gamma Knife Center

Washington University School of Medicine
Department of Neurological Surgery
660 S. Euclid Avenue
Campus Box 8057
St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Administrative Office: 314-747-6142
Patient Appointments: 314-362-3577
Fax: 314-362-2107

Clinical Interests
Stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic surgery, cerebrovascular surgery, neuro-oncology.

Research Interests
Neuronal and glioma cellular apoptosis; effects of radiation and/or chemotherapy on glioma cell survival and proliferation. For more information, visit Dr. Rich's lab.

BA, Taylor University
Upland, Indiana

MD, Indiana University School of Medicine
Indianapolis, Indiana

Intern, General Surgery
Barnes Hospital
St. Louis, Missouri

Assistant Resident, Neurological Surgery
Barnes Hospital
St. Louis, Missouri

Chief Resident, Neurological Surgery
Barnes Hospital
St. Louis, Missouri

Fellow, Neurological Surgery
Department of Pharmacology
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, Missouri

Hospital Appointments
Barnes-Jewish Hospital
St. Louis Children’s Hospital

Medical Licensure

Board Certification
American Board of Neurological Surgery
May, 1987


  1. Rich, K. M., Yip, H.K., Osborne, P.A., Schmitt, R.E., Johnson, E.M., The role of nerve growth factor in adult dorsal root ganglia neurons and its response to injury, Journal of Comparative Neurology 230:110-118, 1984.
  2. Yip, H.K., Rich, K. M., Lampe, P.A., Johnson, E.M., The effects of nerve growth factor and its antiserum on the postnatal development and survival after injury of sensory neurons, Journal of Neuroscience 4:2986-2992, 1984.
  3. Rich, K. M., Goldring, S., Gado, M., Computed tomography in chronic seizure disorder caused by glioma, Archives of Neurology 42:26-27, 1985.
  4. Rich, K. M., Johnson, E.M., Ventral rhizotomy enhances regeneration of uninjured sensory neurons, Brain Research 335:182-187, 1985.
  5. Rich, K. M., Luszczynski, J.R., Osborne, P.A., Johnson, E.M., Nerve growth factor protects adult sensory neurons from cell death and atrophy caused by nerve injury, Journal of Neurocytology 16:261-268, 1987.
  6. Bridwell, K.H., Jenny, A.B., Saul, T., Rich, K. M., Grubb, R.L., Posterior segmental spinal instrumentation (PSSI) with posterolateral decompression and debulking for metastatic thoracic and lumbar spine disease. Limitations of the technique. Spine 13:1383-1394, 1988.
  7. Eichler, M.E., Rich, K. M. Death of sensory neurons after acute withdrawal of nerve growth factor in tissue culture, Brain Research 482:340-346, 1989.
  8. Tempelhoff, R., Modica, P., Grubb, R.L., Rich, K. M., Selective shunting during carotid endarterectomy based on two channel computerized electroencephalographic compressed spectral array analysis, Neurosurgery 24:339-344, 1989.
  9. Tempelhoff, R., Modica, P., Rich, K. M., Grubb, R.L., Perioperative use of computerized EEG monitoring during aneurysm surgery, Journal of Neurosurgery 71:24-31, 1989.
  10. Rich, K. M., Alexander, T.D., Pryor, J.C., Hollowell, J.P., Nerve growth factor enhances growth through silicone chambers, Experimental Neurology 105:162-170, 1989.
  11. Rich, K. M., Disch, S.P., Eichler, M.E., The influence of regeneration and nerve growth factor on the neuronal cell body reaction to injury, Journal of Neurocytology 18:569-576, 1989.
  12. Rich, K. M., Hollowell, J.P., Flunarizine protects neurons from death after axotomy or NGF deprivation, Science 248:1419-1421, 1990.
  13. Wooley, A.L., Hollowell, J.P., Rich, K. M., Fibronectin-laminin combination enhances peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 103:509-518, 1990.
  14. Hollowell, J.P., Villadiego, A., Rich, K. M., Sciatic nerve regeneration across gaps within silicone chambers; long-term effects of NGF and consideration of axonal branching, Experimental Neurology 110:45-51, 1990.
  15. Eichler, M.E., Dubinsky, J.M., andRich, K. M., The relationship of intracellular calcium to dependence on nerve growth factor in dorsal root ganglion neurons in cell culture, Journal of Neurochemistry 58:263-269, 1992.
  16. Modica, P.A., Tempelhoff, R., Rich, K. M., and Grubb, R.L., Computerized EEG monitoring and selective shunting: Influence on intraoperative phenylephrine administration and myocardial infarction following general anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy, Neurosurgery 30:842-846, 1992.
  17. Griffeth, L.K., Rich, K. M., Dehdashti, F., Simpson, J.R., Fusselman, M.R., McGuire, A.H., and Siegel, B.A., Brain metastases from non-central nervous system tumors: Evaluation with PET, Radiology 186:37-44, 1993.
  18. Bailey, S.B., Eichler, M.E., Villadiego, A. and Rich, K. M., The influence of fibronectin and laminin during Schwann cell migration and peripheral nerve regeneration through silicone chambers, Journal of Neurocytology 22:176-184, 1993.
  19. Eichler, M.E., Dubinsky, J.M., Tong, J., and Rich, K. M., The ability of diphenylpiperazines to prevent neuronal death in dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro after nerve growth factor deprivation and in vivo after axotomy, Journal of Neurochemistry 62:2148-2157, 1994.
  20. Molleston, M.C., Moran, C.J., Roth, K.A., and Rich, K. M., Infantile meningioma, Pediatric Neurosurgery 21:195-200, 1994.
  21. Drzymala, R.E., Klein, E.E., Simpson, J.R., Rich, K. M., Wasserman, T.H., and Purdy, J.A., Assurance of high quality LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics 30:459-472, 1994.
  22. Simpson, J.R., Rich, K. M., Drzymala, R.E., Wasserman, T.H., Klein, E.E., Michaletz-Lorenz, M., Maurath, J., and Filiput, E., Stereotactic external beam irradiation using a linear accelerator: The Washington University experience, Missouri Medicine 92:188-192, 1995.
  23. Tong, J.X., Eichler, M.E., and Rich, K. M., Intracellular calcium levels Influence apoptosis in mature sensory neurons after trophic factor deprivation, Experimental Neurology 138:45-52, 1996.
  24. Henegar, M.M., Koby, M.B., Silbergeld, D.L., Rich, K. M., and Moran, C.J., Intrasellar abscess following transsphenoidal surgery. Two case reports and literature review, Surgical Neurology 45(2): 183-188, 1996.
  25. Tantawaya V.S., Bailey S.B., Schmidt R.E., Villadiego A., Tong J.X., and Rich, K. M., Peripheral nerve regeneration through silicone chambers in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats, Brain Research 759:58-66, 1997.
  26. Tong, J.X., and Rich, K. M., Diphenylpiperazines enhance regeneration after facial nerve injury, Journal of Neurocytology 26:339-347, 1997.
  27. Tong, J.X., Vogelbaum, M.A., and Rich, K. M., Radiation-induced apoptosis in dorsal root ganglions, Journal of Neurocytology 26:771-777, 1997.
  28. Vogelbaum, M.A., Tong, J.X., Higashikubo, R., Gutmann, D.H., Rich, K. M., Transfection of C6 glioma cells with the bax gene results in increased sensitivity to treatment with cytosine arabinoside, Neurosurgical Focus 3:Article 3, Nov 1997.
  29. Rich, K. M., and Tong, J.X., Flunarizine enhances survival and regeneration after sensory and motor peripheral nerve injury, Restorative Neurology and Neurosciences 11:203-209, 1997.
  30. Vogelbaum, M.A., Tong, J.X., Higashikubo, R., Gutmann, D.H., Rich, K. M., Transfection of C6 glioma cells with the bax gene results in increased sensitivity to treatment with cytosine arabinoside, Journal of Neurosurgery 88(1):99-105, 1998.
  31. Sherburn, E.W., Bahn, M., Godken, M., Silbergeld, D.L., Rich, K. M.,  Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and oligodendroglioma: The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A case report and review of the literature, Neurosurgical Focus 14:Article 16, April 1998.
  32. Vogelbaum, M.A., Tong, J.X., Rich, K. M.,  Developmental regulation of apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons, Journal of Neuroscience 18(21):8928-8935, Nov 1998.
  33. Vogelbaum, M.A., Tong, J.X., Perugu, R., Gutmann, D.H., Rich, K. M., Overexpression of BAX in human glioma cell lines. Journal of Neurosurgery 91:483-489, 1999.
  34. Racette, B.A., Rich, K. M., Randle, J., Mink, J.W. Ipsilateral thalamic stimulation after thalamotomy for essential tremor. A case report. Stereotactic Functional Neurosurgery 75:155-159, 2000.
  35. Leonard, J., Gökden, M., Kyriakos, M., Derdeyn, C.P., Rich, K. M. Malignant giant-cell tumor of the parietal bone: a case report and review of literature. Neurosurgery 48:424-429, 2001.
  36. Watson, M.A., Perry, A., Budhjara, V., Hicks, C., Shannon, W.D., Rich, K. M. Gene expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays distinguishes world health organization grade of oligodendrogliomas. Cancer Research 61:1825-1829, 2001.
  37. Derdeyn, C.P., Cross III, D.T., Moran, C.J., Brown, G.W., Pilgram, T.K., Diringer, M.N., Grubb Jr., R.L., Rich, K. M., Chicoine, M.R., and Dacey Jr., R.G. Postprocedural ischemic events after treatment of intracranial aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils. Journal of Neurosurgery 96:837-843, 2002.
  38. Shannon, W., Watson, M., Perry, A., Rich, K. M. Mantel statistics to correlate gene expression levels from microarrays with clinical covariates. Genetic Epidemiology 23:87-96, 2002.
  39. Leuthardt, E.C., Wippold, F.J., Oswood, M.C., Rich, K. M. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the preoperative assessment of brain abscesses. Surgical Neurology 58:395-402, 2002.
  40. Fox Jr., D.J., Moran, C.J., Cross III, D.T., Grubb Jr., R.L., Rich, K. M., Chicoine, M.R., Dacey Jr., R.G., Derdeyn, C.P. Long-term outcome after angioplasty for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis in poor surgical candidates. Stroke 33:2877-2880, 2002.
  41. Leuthardt, E., Fox, D.J., Rich, K. M., Dacey, R.G., Ojemann, G.A., Grubb, R.L., and Ojemann, J.G. Frameless stereotaxy without rigid pin fixation during awake craniotomies. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 79:256-261, 2002.
  42. Jiang, Z., Zheng, X., Rich, K. M. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression with bispecific antisense treatment in glioblastoma cell lines induce cell death. Journal of Neurochemistry 84:273-281, 2003.
  43. Mansur, D.B., Drzymala, R.E., Rich, K. M., Klein, E.E., Simpson, J.R. The efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of intracranial ependymoma. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 66:187-190, 2004.
  44. Jiang, Z., Zheng, X., Lytle, R.A., Higashikubo, R., Rich, K. M. Lovastatin-induced up-regulation of the BH3-only protein, Bim, and cell death in glioblastoma cells. Journal of Neurochemistry 89:168-78, 2004.
  45. Lytle, R.A., Jiang, Z., Zheng, X., Rich, K. M. BCNU down-regulates anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 in association with cell death in oligodendroglioma-derived cells. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 68:233-41, 2004.
  46. Ushe, M., Mink, J.W., Revilla, F.J., Wernle, A., Schneider Gibson P., McGee-Minnich, L., Hong, M., Rich, K. M., Lyons, K.E., Pahwa, R., Perlmutter, J.S. Effect of stimulation frequency on tremor suppression in essential tremor. Movement Disorders 19:1163-8, 2004.
  47. Mansur, D.B., Perry, A., Rajaram, V., Michalski, J.M., Park, T.S., Leonard, J.R., Luchtman-Jones, L., Rich, K. M.,  Grigsby, P.W., Lockett, M.A., Wahab, S.H., Simpson, J.R. Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma. International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics 61:387-91, 2005.
  48. Choi, K., Siegel, M., Piper, J.L., Yuan, L., Cho, E., Strnad, P., Omary, B., Rich, K. M., Khosla, C. Chemistry and biology of dihydroisoxazole derivatives: selective inhibitors of human transglutaminase 2. Chemistry and Biology 12:469-75, 2005.
  49. Lytle, R.A., Jiang, Z., Zheng, X., Higashikubo, R., Rich, K. M. Retinamide-induced apoptosis in glioblastomas is associated with down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 proteins. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 74:225-32, 2005.
  50. Yuan, L., Choi, K., Khosla, C., Zheng, X., Higashikubo, R., Chicoine, M.R., Rich, K. M. Tissue transglutaminase 2 inhibition promotes cell death and chemosensitivity in glioblastomas. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 4:1293-302, 2005.
  51. Drzymala, R.E., Malyapa, R.S., Dowling, J.D., Rich, K. M., Simpson, J.R., Mansur, D.B. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: The Washington University initial experience. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 83:148-152, 2005.
  52. Rivet, D.J., Goddard, J.K., Rich, K. M., Derdeyn, C.P. Percutaneous transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous malformation fistulas through a mastoid emissary vein. Journal of Neurosurgery 105 (4):636-639, 2006.
  53. Hallemeier C.L., Derdeyn C.P., Rich, K. M., Grubb T.L., Jr., Chicoine M.R., Moran C.J., Cross D.T., III, Zipfel G.J., Dacey R.G., Jr. Outcome in North American adults with Moyamoya phenomenon. Stroke 37 (6): 1490-1496, 2006.
  54. Ushe, M., Mink, J.W., Tabbal, S.D., Hong, M., Schneider, G.P., Rich, K. M., Lyons, K.E., Pahwa, R., Perlmutter, J.S. Postural tremor suppression is dependent on thalamic stimulation frequency. Mov Disord 21(8):1290-1292, 2006.
  55. Yuan, L., Siegel, M., Choi, K., Khosla, C., Miller, C.R., Jackson, E.N., Piwnica-Worms, D., Rich, K. M. Transglutaminate 2 inhibitor, KCC009, disrupts fibronectin assembly in the extracellular matrix and sensitizes orthotopic glioblastomas to chemotherapy. Oncogene 10:1038, 2006.
  56. Jost, S., Chicoine, M., Rich, K. M.,  Woolsey, T., In vivo imaging in a Murine Model of Glioblastoma. Neurosurgery, Accepted for publication, February 2007.
  57. Tabbal S.D., Revilla F.J., Mink, J.W., Schneider-Gibson P, Wernle A.R., de Eurausquin G.A., Perlmutter J.S., Rich, K. M.,  Dowling J.L. Safety and efficacy of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation performed with limited intra-operative mapping for treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurosurgery, accepted for publication January 2007.