Department of  Neurosurgery
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Gregory J. Zipfel, MD

Professor of Neurological Surgery and Neurology
Neurosurgery Residency Program Director
Co-Director, Stroke and Cerebrovascular Center

Washington University School of Medicine
Department of Neurological Surgery
660 S. Euclid Avenue
Campus Box 8057
St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Administrative Office: 314-747-6141
Patient Appointments: 314-362-3577
Fax: 314-362-2107

Clinical Interests
Surgical treatment of cerebrovascular disease and complex tumors of the skull base. Special expertise in arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistulas, cavernous malformations, meningiomas, craniofacial malignancies, carotid endarterectomy and cerebral revascularization surgery using intracranial bypass.

Research Interests
My lab has two main interests: 1) examining the effects of amyloid-β on cerebral arteriole function and assessing its contribution to ischemic brain injury, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Alzheimer’s Disease; and 2) exploring the mechanisms that underlie cerebral vasospasm and cognitive deficits following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For more information, visit the Zipfel Lab.

BS, Biology, University of Illinois, Champaign
Urbana, Illinois

MD, Northwestern University Medical School
Chicago, Illinois

Resident, Neurological Surgery
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Neurology
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, Missouri

Cerebrovascular and Skull Base Surgery Fellow
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami
Miami, Florida

Hospital Appointments
Barnes-Jewish Hospital
St. Louis Children’s Hospital

Medical Licensure
Missouri, Florida

Board Certification
Board certified, American Board of Neurological Surgery


  1. Han BH, Zhou ML, Abousaleh FS, Brendza RP, Dietrich HH, Koenigsknect-Talboo J, Cirrito JR, Milner E, Holtzman DM, Zipfel GJ. Cerebrovascular dysfunction in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice: contribution of soluble and insoluble amyloid-β peptide, partial restoration via γ-secretase inhibition. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(50):13542-13550, 2008.
  2. Strom RG, Botros JA, Refai D, Moran CJ, Cross DT III, Chicoine MR, Grubb RL, Rich KM, Dacey RG Jr., Derdeyn CP, Zipfel GJ. Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: asymptomatic cortical venous drainage portends less aggressive clinical course. Neurosurgery, 64(2):241-7, 2009.
  3. Zipfel GJ, Henry BH, Ford A, Lee JM. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: progressive disruption of the neurovascular unit. Stroke, 40(supple 1):S16-S19, 2009.
  4. Dhar R, Zazulia AR, Videen TO, Zipfel GJ, Derdeyn CP, Diringer MN. Red blood cell transfusion increases cerebral oxygen delivery in anemic patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke, 40:3039-3044, 2009.
  5. Ray WZ, Moran CJ, Derdeyn CP, Diringer MN, Dacey RG Jr., Zipfel GJ. Near Complete Resolution of Angiographic Cerebral Vasospasm After Extreme Elevation of Mean Arterial Pressure: Case Report. Surgical Neurology, 72(4):347-53, 2009.
  6. Ashley WW, Zipfel GJ, Moran CJ, Zheng J, Derdeyn CP. Moyamoya Phenomenon Secondary to Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease: Diagnosis by 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of Neuroimaging, 19:381-384, 2009.
  7. Limbrick DD, Behdad A, Derdeyn CP, Custer PL, Zipfel GJ, Santiago P. Traumatic Enucleation with Avulsion of the Ophthalmic Artery Resulting in Aneurysm-like Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Clinical Course. Journal of Neurosurgery, 111:653-657, 2009.
  8. Ray WZ, Diringer MN, Moran CJ, Zipfel GJ. Early endovascular coiling of posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the setting of Staphylococcus bacteremia: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery, 66(4):E847, 2010.
  9. Dietrich HH, Xiang C, Han BH, Zipfel GJ, Holtzman DM. Soluble amyloid-beta, effect on cerebral arteriolar regulation and vascular cells. Molecular Neurodegeneration, 13;5:15, 2010. 
  10. Goyal MS, Hallemeier CL, Zipfel GJ, Rich KM, Grubb RL, Chicoine MR, Moran CJ, Cross DT III, Dacey RG Jr., Derdeyn CP. Clinical features and outcome in North American adults with idiopathic occlusive disease of the Circle of Willis without moyamoya collaterals. Neurosurgery, 76(2):278-85, 2010. 
  11. Washington CW, Beddow K, Zipfel GJ. Update on the Natural History of Cavernous Malformations and Factors Predicting Aggressive Clinical Presentation. Neurosurgical Focus, 29(3):E7, 2010.
  12. Zanier ER*, Refai D*, Zipfel GJ, Longhi L, Zoerle T, Esparza TJ, Spinner M, Bateman RJ, Brody DL, Stocchetti N. Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 82(2):157-9, 2011.
  13. Rahman M, Ogilvy CS, Zipfel GJ, Siddiqui AH, Bulsara KR, Kim LJ, Riina HA, Mocco J, Hoh BL. Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms Do Not Shrink When They Rupture: Multi-Center Collaborative Aneurysm Study Group. Neurosurgery, 68(1):155-60, 2011.
  14. Vellimana AK, Milner E, Azad TD, Harries MD, Zhou ML, Gidday JM, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Endogenous Protection Against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Cerebral Vasospasm. Stroke, 42; 776-782, 2011.
  15. Reynolds MR, Willie JT, Zipfel GJ, Dacey RG, Jr. Sexual Intercourse and Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture: Potential Mechanisms and Precipitants. Journal of Neurosurgery, 114(4):969-77, 2011.
  16. Blackburn S, Ashley WW, Rich KM, Simpson JR, Drzymala RE, Ray WZ, Moran CJ, Cross DT, Chicoine MR, Dacey RG Jr., Derdeyn CP, Zipfel GJ. Combined Endovascular Embolization and Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Large Arteriovenous Malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 114(6):1758-67, 2011.
  17. Derdeyn CP, Dacey RG Jr., Zipfel GJ. Author Response to Editorial on Article Combined Endovascular Embolization and Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Large Arteriovenous Malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 114(6):1758-67, 2011.
  18. Sampson T, Dhar R, Zipfel GJ. Cerebral infarction following a seizure in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia. Surgical Neurology International, 2:14, 2011.
  19. Vellimana AK, Ford AL, Lee JM, Derdeyn CP, Zipfel GJ. Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Disease: Incidence, Natural History, Diagnosis and Management. Neurosurgical Focus, 30(6):E14, 2011.
  20. Murphy T, Welch E, Dhar R, Zipfel GJ, Diringer MN. Comparison of short duration levetiracetan to extended course phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis following subarachnoid hemorrhage. World Neurosurgery, 75(2):269-74. 
  21. Reynolds MR, Blackburn SL, Zipfel GJ. Recurrent Idiopathic Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report and Literature Review. Journal of Neurosurgery, 115(3):612-6, 2011.
  22. Diringer MN, Bleck TP, Claude Hemphill J 3rd, Menon D, Shutter L, Vespa P, Bruder N, Connolly ES Jr, Citerio G, Gress D, Hänggi D, Hoh BL, Lanzino G, Le Roux P, Rabinstein A, Schmutzhard E, Stocchetti N, Suarez JI, Treggiari M, Tseng MY, Vergouwen MD, Wolf S, Zipfel G. Critical Care Management of Patients Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society's Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference. Neurocritical Care, 15(2):211-40, 2011.
  23. Washington CW, Zipfel GJ; Participants in the International Multi-disciplinary Consensus Conference on the Critical Care Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Detection and Monitoring of Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: A Review and Assessment of the Literature. Neurocritical Care, 15(2):312-317, 2011.
  24. Washington CW, Vellimana AK, Zipfel GJ, Dacey RG Jr. The Current Surgical Management of Intracranial Aneurysms. Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences, 55(3):211-31, 2011.
  25. Dhar R, Dacey RG Jr., Human T, Zipfel GJ. Unilateral Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome with Hypertensive Therapy of Contralateral Vasospasm. Neurosurgery, Epub ahead of print, May 13, 2011.
  26. Kadkhodayan Y, Somogyi CT, Cross DT, Derdeyn CP, Zipfel GJ, Chicoine MR, Rich KM, Grubb RL Jr., Dacey RG Jr., Moran CJ. Technical, angiographic and clinical outcomes among Neuroform 1, 2, 2 Treo and 3 in stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms. Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Epub ahead of print, September, 2011. 
  27. Magnoni S, Esparza TJ, Conte V, Carbonara M, Carabba G, Holtzman DH, Zipfel GJ, Stocchetti N, and Brody DL. Tau Elevations in the Brain Extracellular Space Correlate with Reduced Amyloid-β Levels and Predict Adverse Clinical Outcomes after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain, Epub ahead of print, November 23, 2011.
  28. Han BH, Zhou M, Vellimana AK, Milner E, Kim DH, Greenberg JK, Chu W, Mach RH, Zipfel GJ. Resorufin Analogs Preferentially Bind Cerebrovascular Amyloid: Potential Use as Imaging Ligands for Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy. Molecular Neurodegeneration, Epub ahead of print, December 22, 2011.
  29. Delgado JE, Jagadeesan BD, Moran CJ, Cross DT, Zipfel GJ, Lee JM, Romero JM, Derdeyn CP. Independent Validation of the Secondary Intracerebral Hemorrhage Score with Catheter Angiography and Findings of Emergent Hematoma Evacuation. Neurosurgery, 70(1):131-40, 2012.
  30. Han BH, Zhou ML, Milner E, Vellimana AK, Zipfel GJ. Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Attenuates Cerebral Vasospasm and Improves Functional Recovery Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  Neurosurgery, 70(1):178-87, 2012.
  31. Delgado JE, Jagadeesan BD, Refai D, Moran CJ, Cross DT, Chicoine MR, Rich KM, Diringer MN, Dacey RG Jr., Derdeyn CP, Zipfel GJ. Diagnostic Yield of Repeat Catheter Angiography in Patients with Catheter and CT Angiography Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Neurosurgery (accepted).
  32. Washington CW*, Zipfel GJ*, Chicoine MR, Derdeyn CP, Rich KM, Moran CJ, Cross DT, Dacey RG Jr. Comparing Indocyanine Green Videoangiography to the “Gold Standard”, Intra-Operative Digital Subtraction Angiography Used in Aneurysm Surgery. Journal of Neurosurgery (accepted)